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      光纖機的激光切割噴嘴,哪款適合你?

      2020-04-07

      切割頭噴嘴安裝在加工頭前端,有助于控制輔助氣體的流速和流量進而會影響到激光切割機的切割質量。

      那么問題來了 ●




      ● 激光切割噴嘴類型的選擇對切割品質的影響有多大?

      ● 目前有哪些噴嘴?

      ● 該如何選擇噴嘴?

      有哪些“小而美”的配件

      能使你的激光切割效果大大提高

      第27期【Rayclass | 銳課堂】

      帶您了解

      激光切割噴嘴


      活性氣體激光切割

      Active Gas Laser Cutting



      激光光束的能量在反應氣體(O2)中加熱材料至高于母材燃點的溫度

      Energy from the laser beam heats the material (mild steel) to above the ignition temperature in the reactive gas (O2).

      Fe+?O2→FeO

      (氧化反應形成氧化鐵)

      Combustion-process Fuels the Burning of Iron Oxide


      一旦切縫形成,材料就會從近乎垂直的切前面(薄的熔融層)被移除,切割過程中母材對激光能量的吸收主要是在這一層熔融層。受熱材料的氣化,底部噴渣,材料的熱傳導和熔化都會造成切割過程中熱量的流失和損耗,因此為了滿足加工效率,激光功率,工藝參數,切割頭光學配比和噴嘴的選擇就變得尤為重要。

      Once the kerf has been opened, material removal is from a nearly vertical erosion front (thin molten layer). Absorption of laser energy is predominantly at this liquid layer during the cutting processing. The layer loses heat by vaporisation, by ejection of liquid material at the lower surface, by conduction and by melting of solid material as the cut advances. In order to ensure the quality of the workpiece and the efficiency of the process, the selection of the proper conditions is very important, such as laser power, cutting parameters, cutting head and nozzle.


      切割條紋-當切割速度較慢時會造成切縫兩邊局部過多的熱量沉積,從而導致斷面條紋粗糙甚至會出現燒邊現象。

      Striations-The slow cutting speed will cause the local thermal accumulation,which will lead to rough striations even side burns.

      切割速度快(左圖)切割速度慢(右圖)


      激光切割噴嘴概述

      The Overview of Laser Cutting Nozzle




      噴嘴在激光切割中起著非常重要的作用,它的主要目的是將輔助氣體釋放到切割材料表面和切縫中,使在切割過程中產生的熔融狀和氣化的母材被排走,留下一個干凈的切口。

      The nozzle is very important in laser cutting. Its main purpose is to deliver a gas jet such that the heat generated by the laser beam (and the resulting melt & vapour) is blown away, leaving a clean cut.


      如果噴嘴設計和維護不當,加工精度不夠,就會造成氣體的流速減弱,氣流方向變得不穩定從而影響切割過程中材料的移除最終導致切割效果不理想。

      If the nozzle is poorly designed (& maintained), the gas jet will not have the required velocity or directional stability to remove the molten material. 


      目前主要有兩種噴嘴設計: “低速噴嘴” (氣體流速小于音速) 和“高速噴嘴” (氣體流速接近音速) 。影響噴嘴性能的因素有切割頭腔體氣壓,噴嘴直徑,噴嘴內部形和噴嘴出口形狀。

      There are two basic designs: ‘Low Speed’ (gas velocity less than speed of sound) and ‘High Speed’ (velocities around the speed of sound). There are many factors that affect nozzle performance nozzles, such as chamber pressure , nozzle diameter, internal shape, nozzle exit shape and nozzle material.


      低速噴嘴 VS 高速噴嘴

      Low Speed Nozzle VS High Speed Nozzle

      低速噴嘴

      Low Speed Nozzle


      Laval高速噴嘴

      Laval High Speed Nozzle



      為什么要選擇高速噴嘴?

      Why high speed LC nozzles?


      有些材料如不銹鋼和鋁合金很難保證切割斷面底部完全沒有毛刺,因為它們的熔融態金屬具有很強的粘性,因此在氣流流速很低的情況下不易被移除,在斷面底部重凝固形成毛刺。

      Some materials such as stainless steel and aluminium alloy are difficult to cut because their molten material is viscous and cannot be easily removed with low gas speeds. 


      高速噴嘴的工作原理與火箭和噴氣發動機的排氣原理相同,對進入噴嘴的氣體有加速的作用,因此高速噴嘴對于粘性材料的切割能產生更好的效果。

      High speed nozzles work on the same principle as a rocket or jet engine exhaust. The gas expands, pressure drops and the gas velocity accelerates to the design velocity at the nozzle throat region and accelerates to the supersonic gas velocity at the nozzle exit. The design velocity is determined by throat area, exit area, gas pressure, atmospheric pressure, nozzle inter shape and nozzle length.


      而如果使用普通低速噴嘴,工件表面會氣壓隨著切割高度的變化而產生較大的波動,導致切割效果不理想。

      The gas pressure along the axis of the jet can vary a great deal with changing of the stand-off distance in the low speed case and variation in pressure on the work-piece surface will affect the ability of the gas jet to remove molten material at the cut front.


      12kW光纖激光器

      切割低碳鋼板Q235B案例展示



      斷面質量與噴嘴的關系

      Relationship between Surface Quality and Nozzle

      噴嘴溫度:溫度上升影響陶瓷環電容值從而造成跟隨不穩定,連續生產時斷面質量不可控。

      Nozzle temperature: The high temperature of the nozzle will affect the capacitance of the ceramic ring and cause the instable stand-off distance, which will lead to the uncontrollable cutting quality during the production.



      不同噴嘴對應的

      12kW光纖激光器切割效果

      推薦

      碳鋼氧氣亮面切割穩定加工建議噴嘴選型

      厚度

      thickness

      (mm)

      建議穩定加工噴嘴

      recommend

      12~14

      1.2E~1.4Emm

      16~20

      1.4E~1.6Emm

      22~30

      1.6E~1.8Emm


      雙層高速噴嘴切割效果

      16mm碳鋼Q235B


      18mm碳鋼Q235B


      20mm碳鋼Q235B


      25mm碳鋼Q235B


      單層高速噴嘴

      30mm碳鋼Q235B

      切割速度0.8~1m/min


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